Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Validity of Waterlow Scale free essay sample

Weight ulcers are zones of restricted harm to the skin and basic tissue brought about by pressure. (Stechmiller et al. , 2008) Pressure ulcers still one of the most critical medical issue in our emergency clinics today, It influences on patients personal satisfaction understanding mental self view and to what extent they will remain in medical clinic then the expense of patient treatment . Moore (2005) gauge that it costs a fourth of a million euro’s per annum to oversee pressure ulcers in emergency clinic and network settings across Ireland . which permits one to take prompt activities and forestall the ulcer if conceivable. To help pressure ulcer chance appraisal a few normalized pressure ulcer chance evaluation scales have been presented and their application in clinical practice is suggested (Stechmiller et al. , 2008). one of the most widely recognized scales utilized in our emergency clinics is the Waterlow scale, This scale was planned by Waterlow in 1985, from concentrate in older and intense wards (waterlow,1985). The Waterlow Scale doles out accepted to incline patients towards creating pressure ulcers: fabricate/weight, moderation, skin type portability, sex/age, hunger, tissue lack of healthy sustenance, neurological deficiency, medical procedure/injury and explicit drug. We will compose a custom paper test on Legitimacy of Waterlow Scale or on the other hand any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The complete scores accomplished inside each factor are added to infer the Waterlow score, with higher scores accepted to check more prominent helplessness. (Waterlow, 1985) A score of more than 10 is arranged as(at chance) between 15 to 20 as (high hazard) and more than 20 as (extremely high hazard). This article joins three significant perspectives concerning the waterlow scale in regard to pressure ulcer. These viewpoints incorporates the high hazard populace ,the dependability/legitimacy and focal points and weaknesses of waterlow pressure ulcer scale.bâ which population(s) the waterlow scale is material to? Waterlow scale one of the renowned scales to evaluate the weight ulcer. the Waterlow Scale is the most broadly utilized in medicinal services settings (Thompson, 2005). what's more, generally use with patients after medical procedure and injury (orthopedic and spinal medical procedure) additionally with patients have neurological shortages (DM,CVA) ,organs disappointment and in terrible fringe course. (waterlow,1985). At the point when we utilize this instrument with old we should realize the old individuals as of now have bit of neurogenic deficiency, shortcoming and landmass. (cook et al. ,1999). The scale utilized for Patients admitted to emergency clinic or in any case restricted to a bed, seat, or wheelchair since they are in danger from creating pressure ulcers. ( Anthony et al. ,2000). Analysts have distinguished propelled age (more seasoned than age80), low diastolic circulatory strain (under 60), expanded internal heat level, and poor ebb and flow dietary admission of protein as significant indicators of Pressure ulcer chance. Different dangers that ought to be considered are fringe vascular ailment, delayed medical procedure (especially including extracorporeal oxygenation), or unmanageable agony. Allman (1995) discovered we have to utilize the weight ulcer scale for hip break patients who will remain on bed over 4 days and with oblivious patients over 5 days . Anthony et al (2000) found the older individuals over 64 years of age need pressure ulcer appraisal yet we should know the old individuals whine from neurogenic shortfalls and loss of craving. The patients who are on ventilator and complete bed rest particularly in ICU unit they hazard for skin breakdown, so they need checking and evaluation to forestall any weight ulcer. Watkinson (1996)reliability: Through the perusing to choose the dependability and legitimacy of waterlow pressure ulcer scale , the specialists proposed the waterlow scale is inconsistent as strategy for pressure ulcer appraisal. A few examinations found the difference in scores in light of the fact that diverse in information level not worthy. A hazard appraisal scale must be dependable paying little mind to the assessor. Numerous examinations have assessed the unwavering quality, where two free raters or spectators allot similar evaluations/values for a trait being estimated of the Waterlow Scale. Polit and Hungler (2001) . In (Shukla et al.,2008) study the Waterlow scale was utilized on 15 patients in two wards. Every patient was evaluated day by day by two distinct medical attendants over a time of se ven days. A sum of 28 clinical attendants were included and a sum of 210 appraisals got. Factual examination exhibited frail or a moderate level of between rater unwavering quality. Different creators proposed the water low scope excessively long and tedious. Ache and Wong (1998). Edwards (1995) analyzed the unwavering quality of the Waterlow Scale he did a cross-sectional perception review of 40 old patients with or without ulcers in a network setting. The outcomes neglected to show elevated levels of unwavering quality and in accordance with different examinations over anticipated ulcer improvement. Writing recommends that there impediment to utilizing this scale with old individuals in light of the fact that the self control, neurological deficiency and medicine influence on scale result. (Cook et al. , 1999) said the Categories where difference happened the most were (skin type), (fabricate/weight for stature) and (portability) again demonstrating that the score is influenced by an absence of satisfactory definitions in these classifications. Moreover, this investigation features that the older populace demonstrates hard to get scores at the low finish of the range. This shows a constraint of the scale that maybe the hazard edges are unreasonably high for old individuals Other Literatures analyzed the scale parts and inspected if the variety between medical attendants influence on scale result or not? At that point Literatures proposed The classes of sex, age, and minor medical procedure indicated a serious extent of agreement in scores, however the raters differed most in the classifications of versatility and skin type. Additionally hard to separate between in danger, high hazard, and exceptionally high hazard status (Shukla et al. , 2008). The examinations have demonstrated the Waterlow scale not having clear depiction and directions for scale things and the scale result reliant on assessor judgment. Ache and Wong (1998). Kelly (2005) discovered absence of dependability of the Waterlow Scale is because of various view of the patient by the medical attendants, According to Kelly (2005) discovered other issue might be because of the nonattendance of the genuine patient, Furthermore, this investigation features that medical attendants are not utilizing the scale for the reason proposed. The examinations shows the things poor nourishment, portability and skin type are hard to rate and cause to blunders in the absolute score. Moreover, the dependability of the complete score and the things has never been explored in clinical practice. What's more, clinical benefit of utilizing this instrument isn't clear and it should just be applied with alert. (Gould at al. , 2002) Validity Several Literatures inspected the legitimacy of waterlow scale. (Pancorbo-Hidalgo et al. , 2006) recommended the scale has awesome weight ulcer chance expectation limit, offers a high-affectability however a low-explicitness score. Different examinations found the scale’s high affectability and low-explicitness level incorporate Pang and Wong (1998), and (Balzer et al. , 2007). The investigations featured the scale to show high-affectability however low-particularity levels. Edwards (1996) accepts the scale performs preferred as an indicative rather over a prescient apparatus. Despite the fact that it contains a class for skin appraisal, it will definitely accomplish high affectability. Another point proposed by Edwards (1996) is its unseemliness in managing the old. This is a result of high weighting given to age inside the score. Despite the fact that the Waterlow Scale has been accounted for to be useful in an assortment of clinical claims to fame, a few examinations underlined that the scale doesn't regard all gatherings, for instance, wheelchair clients (Anthony et al. , 1998). Different investigations recommend some subscales its poor prescient legitimacy. For example, the portability, self control, neurological shortfall and drug subscales have made issues, in surveying a patient because of absence of lucidity and portrayals. (Cook et al. , 1999). Ongoing examinations checked on the three most generally utilized weight ulcer chance appraisal scales. The Waterlow scale, the Braden scale and the Norton scale. The examination shows The Waterlow scale is the most broadly utilized hazard appraisal scale in the unified lord vault and Ireland, despite the fact that there is no proof to recommend it is more compelling than the other most usually utilized scales. Honest et al ( 2003) found the waterlow scale may over foresee chance, at that point that cause cost suggestions as costly, precaution hardware is utilized when it may not be essential; or under anticipate chance with the goal that somebody surveyed as not being in danger builds up a weight ulcer.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Relationship between Drugs and Crime

The Relationship among Drugs and Crime Medications: their utilization, abuse and associations with wrongdoing In this exposition I might want to contend that the investigation of wrongdoing and medication use is intricate. There are various differing factors that lead individuals to abuse sedates; these are a blend of social, mental and financial variables. Age and sexual orientation are noteworthy factually however lacking examination has been completed to investigate these issues completely. In this thesis we will consider how individuals get a physical and mental reliance on drugs. We will take a gander at the weight that can be put upon helpless people by broken families and friend pressure. Different components that will be investigated are whether character characteristics or innate variables assume a noteworthy job in sedate abuse and any ensuing criminal conduct. It is likewise certain that there is a relationship among's wrongdoing and medication taking however again this connection isn't obvious. It will be important to consider if there are factors that incline individuals to freak conduct and medication abuse or on the off chance that one factor prompts another, and if so in what course. We will consider at some length what is being done to ‘police’ sedate wrongdoing and presume that albeit much is being done it is a troublesome and developing territory, requiring the intercession of particular wrongdoing organizations, for example, the Serious and Organized Crime Agency (SOCA). We will finish up by looking at that as significantly more research should be done to help comprehend this mind boggling issue yet that there are various zones where valuable speculations could be made. The first is in the arrangement of progressively talented individuals to go about as medications advocates, so as to assist lower with requesting for drugs; the second is to co-work with universal bodies in shaping approach to battle the worldwide medications business and co-work globally with implementation offices; the third is for authorization organizations in this nation to act in association with one another and outside offices to help upset the flexibly of medications by expelling its provider and their cash and decreasing interest by helping drug-clients to battle their fixation. Just when every one of these measures are followed up on will any noteworthy progress be made in the ‘war on drugs’. Definitions Before we set out on our investigations, I might want to characterize how I will utilize the term tranquilizes in this thesis; I plan to characterize sedates as psychoactive medications; this is any compound that ‘alters discernments and conduct by changing cognizant awareness’. In any case, I will bar recreational medications that are acknowledged by society, especially liquor. The purpose behind this is to empower me to accomplish a firmly engaged contention inside the restrictions of the word check. There is a lot of research on liquor misuse; quite a bit of it reflects the abuse of different medications, be that as it may, there are some noteworthy contrasts, which would widen out the contention to an extreme. In this thesis we will limit ourselves to drugs that are outside of society’s endorsement. The medications we will consider in this work fall into four classifications: depressants, energizers, sedatives and drugs. The depressants incorporate liquor, barbiturates and solvents. Energizers work by expanding the transmission of nerve driving forces in the cerebrum; they incorporate cocaine, MDMA (otherwise called ‘ecstasy’), and amphetamines. The following gathering of medications, sedatives have been known since the hour of the old Sumerians; in 4000BC they named the plant that created sap from its unripe seedpods, the poppy. From this gum come the sedative medications. These discourage neural working, stifle physical sensation and reactions to incitement, which is the reason the codeine and morphine renditions of this medication are utilized as significant painkillers. Psychedelic drugs are the last gathering and contain LSD, PCP and cannabis. In this thesis, when we have thought about what drives at first to sedate use and abuse, we will take a gander at the connection among medications and wrongdoing. I have characterized above what I mean by drugs, I’d now prefer to characterize what mean by wrongdoing. Such a definition isn't anything but difficult to build up. There is noticeable contrast between the definition made by an exploration analyst and a legal counselor; one has a profoundly conceptualized definition, the other a legitimate one. In this thesis, I will utilize Glen Walters meaning of wrongdoing. In his book Drugs and Crime in Lifestyle Perspective, he characterizes it as ‘a decide breaking conduct that, whenever known to legitimate specialists, would bring about the standard breaker’s being accused of a criminal offense deserving of law’. Size of medication issue It's anything but a simple errand to precisely record what number of individuals take these types of medications all the time. A National Survey on Drug Use and Health, attempted in the United States in 2003, uncovered that an expected 3.7 million individuals had utilized heroin sooner or later in their life. It additionally uncovered that 119,000 had utilized heroin in the month prior to the study. It is maybe promising that the British Crime Survey uncovers that medication taking in this nation among 16 to 24 years olds has diminished since 1998, despite the fact that it has expanded in individuals structure 16to 59. A United Nations report, distributed in 2005, evaluated that 200million individuals, or around 5% of the world’s populace, aged15-64, have utilized medications in the most recent year. Whichever figure is right, the quantity of individuals who misuse drugs is enormous. As far as the criminal side of wrongdoing, this is an inexorably troublesome issue to manage. The illicit market for drugs is tremendous, which draws in the consideration of huge sorted out wrongdoing gatherings. All things considered, managing this difficult will be a significant piece of the work done by the new Serious and Organized Crime Agency. A significant region that should be taken a gander at is the means by which to upset the progression of medications into the nation; this will be an unpredictable endeavor. Utilizing Cocaine for instance, the medication begins in Latin America, primarily Columbia. Its at that point taken first to an optional nation, for example, Spain, Portugal or West Africa, lastly channeled into the UK through France, Belgium or the Netherlands. In spite of the fact that, Jamaica, the Caribbean Island nearest to Latin America, which additionally has a noteworthy foreigner network in England, gives a more straightforward course into this nation for drugs. Plainly, this implies the Immigration and Customs and Excise offices likewise have a significant part to play in policing this ‘industry’. The structure of the contention In part one we will take a gander at the physical, mental and natural factors that lead to habit of harsh substances. In section two I will think about whether there is a connection among compulsion and wrongdoing; we will likewise consider the ramifications of the unlawful medications showcase on policing. In part three I will examine the avoidance methodologies that exist. At long last, I will finish up by clarifying that despite the fact that it is conceivable to arrive at certain resolutions in our examination, it is hard to reach an authoritative resolution because of the measure of research material and its complex and frequently opposing nature. Section 1: The street to sedate use and abuse Presentation In this section we will consider the components that lead to medicate use and abuse. We will consider how mentalities when all is said in done concerning drug use have changed and how this has prompted a more prominent acknowledgment of taking medicine. We will likewise consider the mental components that could add to an individual initially falling prey to tranquilize use. There is proof that financial elements might be noteworthy and we will investigate this thought; we will incorporate a thought of the inexorably modern ‘marketing’ techniques utilized by the merchants of unlawful medications. At last, we will presume that despite the fact that there is a lot of data regarding the matter of why individuals start consuming medications we will see that it is hard to reach a determination from the data accessible. We can't offer ends just assumptions. Changing perspectives to drugs Individuals have been utilizing drugs for significantly longer than it has been viewed as an issue. Tammy Salah proposes that medication use has been common since old occasions (Salah, p6). Be that as it may, noteworthy significant changes have happened in the example of medication taking over the most recent four decades. During the 1950s not many individuals enjoyed any type of medication, other than liquor or cigarettes, nonetheless, this circumstance has continuously changed until we have become a medication utilizing society. Various reasons have been recommended for this change. Some have proposed that the expansion in consuming medications for therapeutic purposes modified people’s general demeanor towards ingesting medications; as they gained the observation that a pill could fix physical issues and dysfunctional behavior, they acknowledged the likelihood that a pill could be utilized to counter different issues; others pushed the possibility that in the 1960sand 70s individuals, especially Americans, were investigating new ways of life, many had an expanded measure of relaxation time and searched for new exercises to fill them, one of those approaches to fill the additional hours squander recreational utilization of medications. Streets to habit This expansion in medicate misuse prompted issues with habit as individuals procured a physical reliance on these substances. Step by step, subsequent to taking the medication for quite a while, an individual gained a resistance, so required increasingly more of it to accomplish a similar impact. They likewise arrived at a phase where discontinuance of the medication in the framework prompted disagreeable withdrawal side effects. At this stage they are said to have gained physical reliance on the medication. In any case, this isn't the main type of reliance that can emerge; it is likewise conceivable to gain a mental reliance. This can happen especially if a medication is utilized to lessen nervousness; despite the fact that no physical reliance happens, the sentiment of being without tension is addictive, which makes the medication addictive

Sunday, August 9, 2020

5 Bad Health Habits That May Increase Social Anxiety

5 Bad Health Habits That May Increase Social Anxiety December 01, 2019 Social Anxiety Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Smoking makes anxiety worse in the long run. Getty / Cultura / Aliyev Alexei Sergeevic Bad health habits have the potential to increase anxiety. Just like with physical health problems, mental health issues can be aggravated by what you eat and drink, and how you treat your body. If you suffer from social anxiety disorder (SAD), there are a number of bad health habits that you should avoid. Drinking Too Much Caffeine Caffeine  is found in coffee, tea, some soft drinks, chocolate, and some over-the-counter medications. It  is a stimulant that increases alertness and heart rate. For many, caffeine improves feelings of well-being and improves mood as it increases the levels of dopamine in your brain; however, this is a temporary effect.  For some people, caffeine can increase anxiety. Research has shown that people with anxiety disorders may have increased sensitivity to caffeine.   If you cant eliminate caffeine completely, try at least cutting back to see if you notice an improvement in your anxiety. If you normally consume two cups of coffee a day, try lowering it to one and see if you notice a difference. Not Getting Enough Sleep Research shows that people with insomnia are more at risk for developing anxiety disorders. If you suffer from insomnia, meet with your doctor to discuss medication options or try using strategies on your own to improve your sleep. Sticking to a regular sleep schedule as much as possible may help, as will sleeping a set number of hours. If you normally go to bed at 10 pm but lie awake until 1 AM and then dont get up until 8 am, try to instead go to bed later, such as at 11:30 pm, and setting your alarm for 6:30 am. This gives you 7 hours of sleep, and youll probably find it easier to fall asleep at a later time. Not Getting Regular Exercise Regular intense exercise such as running can help alleviate anxiety, while being sedentary may worsen your social anxiety. During exercise, you release endorphins that give you a feeling of well-being and may reduce anxiety. Incorporate  regular exercise into your life to improve your social anxiety. Other potential benefits of regular exercise include positive changes in your body and the chance to meet and spend time with others, which may indirectly help to reduce your social anxiety. Consider joining a gym, attending exercise classes, or signing up for a local running group to expose yourself to more social situations. Eating Certain Foods Any foods that induce feelings similar to the symptoms of social anxiety (e.g., jitters, sweating, or a racing heart) may make your social anxiety worse. Although the foods that will cause these feelings are different for every person, foods high in sugar can be to blame. In addition, overeating, eating too fast, or letting yourself get too hungry can make symptoms of social anxiety worse. While not unhealthy, extremely spicy foods may also aggravate anxiety, so its best to manage your consumption of these foods if your social anxiety is not under control. Smoking Cigarettes Some people smoke cigarettes to  try to relieve tension and  anxiety. Research has shown that smoking cigarettes may be linked to an increased risk of anxiety disorders. The effect of cigarette smoking on your anxiety may be related to the indirect effects of the habit of breathing, as well as the direct effects of  nicotine  on your body. Not only will quitting smoking be better for your social anxiety, but it will also be better for your overall health. If you choose just one of these 5 bad health habits to work on quitting today, this is the one. Using Alcohol as a Crutch While it may be tempting to use alcohol to get through social situations, relying on drinking to reduce your anxiety can make the situation worse in the long term. Drinking alcohol is a safety behavior that never allows you to truly face your fears and overcome them. In addition, when you use alcohol to cope with social anxiety, you are at risk for developing a substance abuse problem. If your social anxiety is severe and alcohol is what is getting you through, talk to your doctor about prescription medication options that may reduce anxiety and you need to drink to cope. A Word From Verywell How do your health habits stack up? Take a moment to evaluate your situation and see which of your habits may be contributing to your social anxiety. If despite your efforts to incorporate more healthy habits into your life, you still find that your social anxiety is severe and causing problems, it may be helpful to consult a mental health professional. Traditional treatment such as medication or therapy could make a difference in your symptoms. The 7 Best Online Anxiety Support Groups

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Should environmentally displaced be categorised as refugees - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1514 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Refugees Essay Did you like this example? Climate change is no longer a hypothetical situation but the reality of world politics in the twenty-first century. Although extremely controversial, research suggests this predicament will deeply affect the lives of millions who will be forcibly displaced from their homes and required to seek refuge elsewhere. Since 2008, the UNHCR has stated that there has been an annual average of 21.5 million displaced people by climate-related disasters – more than those fleeing war or persecution. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Should environmentally displaced be categorised as refugees" essay for you Create order The current legal practices protecting refugees fleeing war or persecution have failed to incorporate environmentally displaced people leaving them helpless with little to no protection. In this essay, I will argue whether the environmentally displaced people (EDPs) should be categorised as refugees providing an argument for and against the question. It is time now to recognise the mass population shift that will continue to rise as a result of these environmental disasters and offer our help. Therefore, I will conclude that the environmentally displaced should now be categorised as refugees. EDPs should be categorised as refugees because those forcibly displaced by an extreme weather event are not covered by the 1951 Refugee Convention and therefore find themselves in a legal void. According to the 1951 Refugee Convention a refugee is recognised as someone who is â€Å"owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.† (Westra, 2009). This convention originally emerged in order to help those displaced during the Second World War focusing on specific individuals rather than large groups – the reality of what we are dealing with today. Environmental change is possibly one of the most significant generators of population displacement and therefore it is clear that the definition is outdated and incomplete maki ng it ill-equipped to deal with today’s refugee crisis. ‘Environmental refugees’ as described by Essam El-Hinnawi are â€Å"those people who have been forced to leave their traditional habitats, temporarily or permanently, because of a marked environmental disruption (natural or triggered by people) that jeopardises their existences†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (El-Hinnawi, 1985, pg. 4). According to the Convention, to be qualified as a refugee you are required to cross an international border, however, most displaced by climate change move within their own countries or move for short periods with the intentions of returning home as soon as possible. Therefore, the environmentally displaced are not accepted as refugees but rather internally displaced peoples and consequently not qualified to accept refugee status. This produces a large protection gap between conventional refugees and this new class of refugees. The environmentally displaced find themselves disadvantaged for re asons they cannot help and have no protection beyond the basic human rights. This lack of protection creates a sense of hopelessness, and results in the question of what can we do for these people and what are their options? The Environmental Justice Foundation urges governments to â€Å"recognise climate refugees and support a new legal agreement to guarantee their rights and their fair claim to our shared world† (EJFoundation, 2017). War is becoming less common and therefore we need to start acknowledging this new global issue and agree to categorise the environmentally displaced as refugees. Moreover, the environmentally displaced should be categorised as refugees as the extreme weather events they are experiencing are largely due to the increase in global climate change. No country is safe from the impacts of climate change; however, it is the poorest and most vulnerable communities that feel it more acutely, nonetheless contribute to only 1% of global emissions. These underdeveloped countries have seen 99% of the deaths from climate and weather-related disasters (EJFoundation, 2017). It is clear that they are at the mercy of polluting countries. Low-lying states, such as Tuvalu and others situated in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean are suffering immensely from rising sea levels which is caused by the increased use of greenhouse gases. These islands have called on the governments of Australia and The United States to put in place policies that will recognise those displaced by climate-related events as legitimate refugees. Currently, they are two of the largest contrib utors of greenhouse emission yet have shown a lack of leadership in mending their wrongdoings. Already â€Å"one-fifth of Tuvalu’s population has been forced to relocate† (Duckworth, 2017). This is just one of the many nations who is losing land every year. Although many EDPs are able to move within their territory and return following a disaster, it is becoming problematic for low-lying nations whose entire lands are disappearing. This makes relocation to other parts of the country impossible. It is suggested that in the next 20-50 years thousands will be forced from their homeland and may even cause a fight for survival by some who are unable to find refuge. Hence, it is essential to categorise the environmentally displaced as refugees to avoid such devastation. Additionally, if we delay supporting EDPs it will become economically untenable in the future. Relocation of refugees already poses immense problems, however what will happen when millions more require asylum ? These less developed countries (LDCs) lack resources to adequately address this crisis themselves and rely on richer neighbouring countries who have the wealth to properly protect them. The effects of climate change are increasing, simultaneously so are the environmentally displaced. It is, therefore, crucial to categorise them as refugees. In contrast, however, the environmentally displaced should not be categorised as refugees because doing so could prove to be more damaging than beneficial. Enabling the environmentally displaced to be categorised as refugees would require expanding the existing definition that defines what a refugee is and this may cause unfavourable consequences. Firstly, amending the 1951 Refugee Convention by widening its interpretation would require the international community to accept a revised definition. Creating ‘climate refugees’ could risk undermining existing refugees who are currently entitled to protection under international law. This may lead to reduced opportunities for all refugees to obtain recognition and protection which would be damaging as there are 25.4 million recognised refugees today, excluding those internally displaced (UNHCR, 2018). This new class of refugees may be judged as illegitimate by politicians and the public who may view them as taking advantage of refugee protection laws, thus increasing the existing negative stigma surrounding them. Secondly, some countries already regard the Convention as being too generous. Proposing to expand the definition of a refugee could result in countries wanting an increasingly narrower definition. This is because by expanding the Refugee Convention to include EDPs would increase the number of those eligible for protection under international law by the millions. An increased number of refugees implies supporting countries would need to contribute more money to the cause. Already â€Å"Industrialised nations spend astronomical amounts of money on processing and supporting asylum seekers. In total, this is estimated to be more than ten times the funds the UNHCR has to protect those†¦under its auspices.† (Birrell and Millbank, 2011). If the UNHCR decided to expand the definition of what qualifies as a refugee, it is unclear if the political appetite exists to provide the necessary fundi ng. Burden sharing is already an issue among richer countries as they believe the issue isn’t there’s. While it is true that a state has a moral responsibility not to return refugees, to their home of origin, after entering their country, it does not state that they have a responsibility to allow them to settle. Finally, the risk in categorising EDPs as refugees could potentially result in more countries completely abandoning the Convention rather than accepting such a ‘burden’. Already, only 145 countries have signed the Convention as it imposes no obligations to assist. If supporting refugees no longer reflects a countries national interest, they are entitled to opt out made possible by Article 44(2) of the Refugee Convention which states that â€Å"any contracting state can denounce or withdraw, with one year’s notice† (UNHCR, 2015). This would have negative effects as the number of refugees left with no protection would be far greater. As a result, the environmentally displaced should not be categorised as refugees as it will reduce the practicality and utility of the term and potentially create a larger issue. In conclusion, the number of displaced people by environmental change is already alarming and could potentially cause the largest refugee crisis in human history. The environmentally displaced should be categorised as refugees to eliminate the protection gap. It is also the poorest countries that are suffering at the feet of those responsible for causing climate-related issues, yet they fail to offer any protection. With climate change expected to intensify, it is necessary to bring about change otherwise, we face extraordinary repercussions in the near future. The Refugee Convention is impractical as the number of climate refugees is far greater than conventional refugees. To ensure the protection of EDPs an entirely new legal classification that is tailored specifically for the needs of the environmentally displaced is essential. This separates the environmentally displaced from conventional refugees and allows them to be recognised as refugees under new international law.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Cultural Experiences And Ideas That Can Be Represented By...

Reflecting on oneself and identifying different characteristics that make us stand out in our community plays an important role in how one views their community. Ethnography is all about the study of human behavior within a culture and that is exactly what people do when they recognize the differences between communities and cultures. After a person is able to recognize where they see themselves in society then they are able to distinguish the different cultures that surround them. When talking about ethnography, media ethnography also needs to be discussed. The definition of ethnography has already been stated and media ethnography elaborates on the definition. There is a strong correlation when thinking about the importance of†¦show more content†¦Due to self-ethnography having the main focus be on personal experience, it matters because it allows for people to reflect on their past cultural experiences. Only by focusing on one’s own background of cultural expe rience will it allow for them to understand another person’s background. Self-ethnography can affect a person’s perception of other cultures backgrounds and experiences as well as their own and because of this fact self-ethnography is important. Values play a major role in how I live my life and they are extremely important to who I am as a person. Many of the values I have come from experiences I have encountered, things I have read, or just personal intuition. Some values that I have are compassion, equality, honesty, justice, and openness. All of these values play are extremely important to me and all of them in different ways. Compassion plays a role in my life because I believe that when people are able to sympathize with others and be there for the in their time of need then they can grow as a person. I always try to show compassion to people even if I don’t agree with certain things about them. Equality is one of the most important values that I have and as I have gotten older the word has changed in meaning for me. When I was younger I never fully understood what the word equality meant, but with the growth of several different activist groups, I have come to understand that the meaning behind the word is changing. Honesty

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Eugenics Designer Babies Free Essays

Eugenics: Designer Babies Okpurukre Isoken (Medical Ethics) Professor Ballantyne August 5th, 2009 Eugenics: Designer Babies Eugenics, in its broadest sense, is defined as â€Å"the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or of a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits†. The term captures a smorgasbord of vivacious imagery etched into the annals of human history – of ghostly memories about human atrocities anxiously waiting to fade away at the twilight moments of a modern age – of overcrowded prison camps, in which the depths of travail and indolent sighs of countless defenseless victims, of bodies ravaged by scars and which have become too weak to be revitalised in any shape or manner. Or of lives consigned to â€Å"medical investigative exploration for the amelioration of human condition† by what at first sight appears to be insignificant signatures of a clerk. We will write a custom essay sample on Eugenics: Designer Babies or any similar topic only for you Order Now Such lives were considered only sacrifices contrived by altruist motives of a beneficent governing authority. Questions if they could have been raised at all in retrospect could only be considered at someones discretionary time, and place of course. Trying to pick through the rubbles of the world’s past mishaps and distilling their lessons for application to today’s issues is like wading and battling oneself through an ever- confusing maze mired with potholes, trenches and cul-de-sacs. Tolstoy, in his masterpiece War and Peace admonished his readers that everything in history has he mirage of appearing to have been predestined, once history has occured. I believe that as potential medical experts honest and critical intellectual inquiry is only the beginning and the least of what we can do to prevent what future generations will ruefully deem as inevitable consequences of our â€Å"brilliant concoctions†. According to Congressman Greenwood’s opening statem ents at the hearing of the COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE, SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND INVESTIGATIONS March 28, 2001 convened by medical researchers, bioethicists and members of congress, â€Å" For most of its 80 years, the brave New World could be seen as a disturbing work of science fiction. That is no longer the case. The possible cloning of human beings is now relegated to the world—not relegated to the world of fiction. The question we must now ask is this: what should we do with this science? † Amidst the backdrop of hefty political and legal debates over bioethics that took place in the ‘90s and early 21st century as a result of Ian Wilmot’s sheep cloning experiements, laws had been enacted that helped to curb the development of reproductive technologies. It became crystal clear that the countdown timer has now been set for he inevitable -the cloning of Homo sapiens. No one knows what would happen after that. Notwithstanding, numerous independently funded private labs across the United States and around the world wasted little time to find legal loopholes to evade the scrutiny of authorities and jumped into the hunt for the holy grail. For instance, On December 5, 1997, Chicagoan physicist and fertility expert Richard Seed announced that he planned to clone a human being before any federal laws could be enacted to ban the process. Seed’s plans were to apply the same technique used to clone Dolly. Seed’s announcement went against President Clinton’s 1997 proposal for a voluntary private moratorium against human cloning. Several arguments may be suggested to explain this fervor. There were those who argued that reproductive freedom includes human cloning, perhaps as a means to address the problem of male infertility. Others advocated cloning as a means to replicate a deceased loved one. For yet others, human cloning is justified because it may provide important advances in scientific knowledge. To be sure, science is entitled to have ethical standards set apart from all other norms of society. Perhaps a closer look at the accompanying evidence will reveal that this is not so. According to Jeff Stryker, a writer for the New York Times Magazine, dated August 4, 2009, sperm banking has now become a global and open market; consumers are no longer limited to the small donor pools at local mom-and-pop sperm banks. In particular, Cryos, a Denmark based company has recently sparked media interest. Its company strategy is aimed at becoming the McDonald’s of sperm banks around the world. Packed in dry ice or liquid nitrogen sperms are shipped express to its buyers in more than twelve countries around the world. Somehow, it is able to sidestep many legal regulations imposed by domestic and local regulations on local sperm bank enterprises. Notwithstanding, the profitability of the sperm bank business has not stemmed the tide in the development of product lines catering to the whims and tastes of different consumer segments. Virginia’s Fairfax Cryobank has stepped into the competitive scene with its †Fairfax Doctorate Donors†; since April 1999 the firm has offered, at a third more than the usual charges, sperm from medical, law, Ph. D. and other students and graduates. Cryos offers three grades of sperm, including an †extra† version that contains twice the number of highly motile sperm as its †regular† brand. An Ivy league woman’s egg could nowadays fetch upwards of $50,000. The California Cryobank, located in Los Angeles has launched a new feature to help prospective baby batter buyers pick a load. Its product lines features sperms and eggs of donors that are celebrity look-alikes. Adam Sandler, Andy Roddick, and Ben Affleck are but a few noteworthy mentions. Apparently these parents are free to choose whom they want to have as their children. The Oxford English dictionary defines the term â€Å"designer babies† as â€Å"a baby that the genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics†. According to Ritter M (2008), â€Å"news that scientists have for the first time genetically altered a human embryo is drawing fire from some watchdog groups that say it’s a step toward creating ‘designer babies’. † Yet, the ubiquity of different sperms and eggs on the market today seems to offer a more palatable alternative to genetic engineering. A different and perhaps more pressing issue centers around the ethics of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Here embryos are screened for gene faults before being transferred to a woman’s uterus. It has come under the spotlight recently in the UK, with high-profile cases such as that of the Leeds-based Hashmi family. The Hashmis have a child with a rare blood disorder, who urgently needs a bone marrow transplant. Through using PGD, the Hashmis may be able to have a child that is free from the disorder suffered by their existing child. The child yet to be born could also donate tissue to cure its sibling. The Hashmi case became the subject of months of legal wrangling in the UK courts†. (Lee, 2003) In April 2009, Panayiotis Zavos, a controversial fertility researcher attracted international media attention when he announced to the world that he had cloned 14 human embryos and transferred 11 of them into the wombs of four women, at least one of whom was British. The operation failed however. According to his own words, the motivations for cloning was â€Å"not to reproduce the Michael Jacksons and the Michael Jordans in this world, and also, we are totally against designer babies. Therefore, we are not interested in manipulating the genetic information, the genome, but rather just allowing those mothers and fathers to be, to become biological fathers and mothers of those children, and, hopefully, those children will be healthy children and we are totally committed to that†¦ We are talking about the development of a technology that can give an infertile and childless couple the right to reproduce and have a child and above all complete its life cycle. This is a human right and should not be taken away from people because someone or a group of people have doubts about its development. According to Lewis Wolpert, a professor of biology, the issue is an irrelevant one. Surprisingly enough, ethical issues with regards to designer babies are hard to see. In his own words, â€Å"What possible argument from ethics could be used against prenatal diagnosis of an embryo obtained by IVF, if the diagnosis prevents the implantation of embryos with defective genes? I know that some people object, but there is no evidence that the early embryo is a person. This idea is a relatively recent one, with religious underpinning but with neither argument nor evidence. The Magisterium of the Catholic Church demands that the embryo be respected from the first instance. But what has to be considered in every case is the child and its future wellbeing, and not to do so is totally lacking in respect. Who, for example, is being harmed in all the recent fuss about choosing an embryo with the right genes to help a sibling? Both children will certainly be very well cared for. And it is care of the child that matters. (Wolpert, 2003)†. The views of religious segment of society stand in stark contrast to the notions entertained by Wolpert. In general, they raise three primary objections. First being that cloning humans could lead to a new eugenics movement where even if cloning begins with a benign purpose, it could devolve into a scientifcally generated caste ranking of superior and inferior people. Being such, it would interferes with the natural order of creation, eliminating the sanctity of God as a creator. And what’s more, cloning could have long-term effects that are unknown and harmful. People have a right to their own identity and their own genetic makeup which should not be replicated. Cardinal William Keeler, Archbishop of Baltimore sums it up more succinctly in humanistic terms ‘‘Cloning is presented as a means for creating life, not destroying life. Yet it shows disrespect toward human life and the very act of generating it. Cloning completely divorces human reproduction from the context of a loving union between man and woman, producing children with no parents in the ordinary sense. He re, human life does not arise from an act of love, but is manufactured to predetermined specifications. A developing human being is treated as an object, not as n individual with his or her own identity and rights. ’’ A slightly different perspective as espoused by Congressman Rush, would be a perspective on how diversity relates to medical research. In his words, â€Å"As an African-American, I’m keenly aware of racist prejudices and biases. The expansion of science can never be an end unto itself. The expansion of science must be viewed in the light of the agenda of those who espouse it and the impact it has on our public, on our way of life and on our God†¦ As noted, science and the biotech field has brought us great successes. We must not take action which will mpede the legitimate and safe use of biotechnology†¦I would argue that we must act with caution to ensure that future scientific successes which will make this world healthier and more prod uctive while tightly regulating and indeed banning those practices which pose a clear threat to the health, the safety, and the moral condition of our citizens. Might we never know how society and human clones will come to perceive one another? Perhaps not. Doron Blake is a 23 year old young man who came from the Nobel Prize Sperm Bank, for which eugenic-minded California inventor Robert Graham recruited various scientific geniuses to onate sperm. When asked to talk about his experience as a sperm-bank child, Doron said, â€Å"It was a screwed-up idea, making genius people. The fact that I have a huge IQ does not make me a person who is good or happy. People come expecting me to have all these achievements under my belt, and I don’t. I have not done anything that special. I don’t think being intelligent is what makes a person. What makes a person is being raised in a loving family with loving parents who don’t pressure them. If I was born with an IQ of 100 and not 180, I could do just as much in my life. The thing I like best bout myself is not that I’m smart but that I care about people and try to make other people’s lives better. I don’t think you can breed for good people. † According to Agar (n. d) human beings are motivated equally by both therapy and enhancement. Yet according to the examples provided above, there seems to exist an ethical divide between treating or preventing disease and enhancing traits. The privacy of persons and families being weighed against life’s existence is a rhetorical discussion that has not witnessed any proper resolution, perhaps because they are viewed as ends in themselves. This point may help in some sort or fashion Reinhold Niebuhr’s view of social conflicts – The human person, in Niebuhr’s account, is self-interested in the extreme. While the individual â€Å"moral man† can check his natural selfishness through conscience, self-discipline, and love, social groups—tribes, movements, nations—look out for their own and strive to dominate other groups. Everybody’s motives are always mixed. Order in society is achieved through the threat of force, so â€Å"society is in perpetual state of war. † Such intransigence in viewpoints could be the ill that lies at the heart human atrocities. The level of anti-abortion violence, seen in the US of the last three decades, which includes arson and bombing are only symptoms of a greater ill that has been galvanizing it. There is little justifiable rationale in the paradoxical actions of engaging in bloodshed and murder if life not death is its goal. This would be the tragic consequence which C. S. Lewis talked about when he observed that ‘‘man’s conquest of nature would result in the abolition of man. ’’ COMHH References Agar N. (n. d). Designer Babies: Ethical Considerations. Retrieved on June 16th, 2009 from http://www. actionbioscience. org/biotech/agar. html Connor S. (2009). Fertility expert: ‘I can clone a human being’ Retrieved on August 4, 2009 from http://www. zavos. org/fertility-expert-i-can-clone-a-human-being-1672095. html Lee E (2003). Debating Designer Babies. Retrieved on June 15, 2009 from http://www. prochoiceforum. org. uk/ocrreliss7. php Macrae F. (2008). Couple to have Britain’s first baby genetically modified to be free of breast cancer gene. Retrieved on June 15, 2009 from http://www. dailymail. co. k/health/article-1098034/Couple-Britains-baby-genetically-modified-free-breast-cancer-gene. html Malcolm R (2008). Genetically Modified Human  Baby? Retrieved on June 14, 2009 from http://healthandsurvival. com/2008/05/12/genetically-modified-human-baby/ Subcommittee on oversight and investigations (2001, March 28). Issues raised by human cloning research. Retrieved from http://republicans. energycommerce. house. gov /107/action/107-5. pdf Thomas V (2007) Children Have Rights – Say No to Repro Tech from http://childrenhaverights-saynotoreprotech. blogspot. com/2007/02/doron-blake-genius-designer-baby. html How to cite Eugenics: Designer Babies, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Of Mice And Men (term Paper On Loneliness Essay Example For Students

Of Mice And Men (term Paper On Loneliness Essay In terms of emotional stability, there is only one thing in life that is really needed and that is friends. Without friends, people would suffer from loneliness and solitude. Loneliness leads to low self-esteem and deprivation. In the novel, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, the characters, Crooks, Candy, and Curlys wife all exhibit some form of loneliness. They are driven towards the curiosity of George and Lennies friendship because they do not have that support in their life. Through his novel, Of Mice and Men, Steinbeck demonstrates that often times, a victim of isolation will have a never-ending search to fulfill a friendship. A guy goes nuts if he aint got nobody. Dont matter no difference who the guy is, longs he with you. I tell ya a guy gets too lonely an he gets sick (Steinbeck, 13)Crooks is a black man that experiences isolation because the society in which he resides is racist. As a result, the previous quote was his means of finding a personal connection to Lennie. Lik e Lennie, Crooks has a relationship with loneliness. He knows that when people get lonely, they tend to get sick. Studies show that people who suffer from loneliness have higher incidence of health problems. This can be determined based on his emotional behavior. A 1998 study showed that 50 percent of patients with heart disease who reported feeling very isolated were not married and had no one in whole they could communicate with, died within five years. (ub-counseling.buffalo.edu) At the rate Crooks is headed, he will probably die in a short period of time. Gerontology stated seniors, who attend church at least weekly, live longer than those who dont. By attending church, the attendees maintain a relationship with god and have the ability to relieve themselves of loneliness. They can deal with their severe problem of loneliness through attending church or other social events and in turn, live longer. Crooks is rejected from every group of people and cannot socially interact with o thers. Loneliness can result from rejection (Couns.uiuc.edu/loneline.htm) Although discrimination is still present during the time period of the book (early 20th century), Crooks still attempts to make friends. Others treat Crooks unjust because he is different from others given that he is black. He does not know how to treat others because of the way others treat him; with disrespect. Furthermore, he does not know how to vent his frustration and as a result, lashes out at others because they are cruel to him. Crooks is not allowed to participate in daily events with white people. He is treated unfairly and therefore acts the same way toward the white people (the ones who offended him.)Cause Im black. They play cards in there, but I cant play because Im Black. They say I stink. Well I tell you, you all stink to me! (Steinbeck, 75)Nobody likes to be forced to live in a barn, let alone to work only with the horses. Crooks spent most of his nights reading and he keeps away from others because of the way he is treated and this eventually leads to his very own emotional downfall. He is treated as an outcast and is forced to find friendship the only way he can, through the books that he reads. The Counseling Center of the University of Buffalo said that: When you are alone, use the time to enjoy yourself. For example, listen to music or watch a favorite television show. Do not spend the time eating endlessly or worrying about your problems. (Karlene Robinson, www.ub-counseling.buffalo.edu) Obviously Crooks is aware of his problem and tries to cope with it through books and magazines. Crooks is fascinated by the strength of the friendship of Lennie and George, especially how close they are. Crooks said, Well, spose, jus spose he dont come back. Whatll you do then? (Steinbeck, 79) Crooks asks these questions because he does not have any friends. He was curious about the friendship of Lennie and George. He wants the people to feel the way that he did when he was lonely, having nobody with them. He is striving to achieve sympathy and understanding from others. Crooks would work for nothing if it meant communicating with others. Crooks offers his services to clear out his problems of loneliness. If youguys would want a hand to work for nothing just his keep, why Id come an lend a hand. I aint so cippled I cant work like a son-of-a-bitch if I want to. (Steinbeck, 84) This quote supports that he is attracted to the friendship of Lennie and George. It also proves that all Crooks wants to do was talk to people, and he will do anything for it, even work like a son-of-a-bitch.Candy, an old, physically disabled swamper, has worked on the ranch practically his whole life. When Candy was on the ranch, he got into an accident that cost him a physical handicap. Farm machinery took away his hand, leaving him money and loneliness. The Counseling Center of the University of Buffalo said that loneliness means to also feel: excluded from a group or a result of a tragedy. As a result of Candys age and disability he has a feeling of uselessness. Since Candy feels that he is old, he places himself in a state of mind that handicaps him more than his missing hand ever will. He looks down on himself as an old worthless man wasting away his last few years. He is often afraid of losing his work, not to mention is whole life. I got hurt four years ago. Theyll can me purty soon. Jus as soon as I cant swamp out no bunk houses theyll put me on the county. (Steinbeck, 66)Candy is so down that he puts himself into a state of solitude. He is often allowed to go out with the other guys, but he always refuses due to his negative aspect towards himself. Candy thinks that nobody wants to be friends with him because of his disability. Eventually, he tries to find a friendship by attempting to join the dream of George and Lennie, to own and run their own little ranch. This is one of Candys desperate attempts to find a place in society and meaning in life. Candy offered his services to become a part of George and Lennies friendship and dream. .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 , .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .postImageUrl , .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 , .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:hover , .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:visited , .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:active { border:0!important; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:active , .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1 .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u452bda95fac43a02512c05ee8a952ed1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Annotated Bibliography EssayIll wash dishes an little chick stuff like that. But Ill be on your own place, an Ill be let to work on our own place. (Steinbeck, 66)Candy was attempting to overcome his loneliness and regain a positive outlook by seeking out situations that enable him to get involved with other ranchers. It is quite possible that he was sad and lonely because he was in search of the right person to be friends with. After Candy lost his dog, he felt much more lonely than he was before. The dog was something that Candy had owned and confided with within his years. He felt worthless because now he didnt own a single important thing. Candy and his dog had the same relationship that George and Lennie had shared for so many years. While Lennie had George and the ranchers had each other, Candy did not have anybody and this put him in a condition of sorrow and depression. Every character in the book is different and no protagonists act alike. Nobody in the book shared the same interests and/or dreams as Candy did. This is why he tried so hard to gain the attention and friendship of Lennie and George. He offers everything that he had to support the friendship including money, but money will never buy genuine friendship. Maybe if I give you money, youll let me how in the garden even after I aint no good at it. (Steinbeck, 66) All of these characters are alike because, not only were they affected by loneliness, they were always in search for ways to solve these dilemmas. Another character who possesses the same inner conflict of loneliness is Curleys wife. Curleys wife is a tease to everybody on the ranch. She will dress and act sort of like a whore. She makes use of her stunning body to gain the attention of the ranchers to sooth her loneliness. These acts give her a sense of relief and made her feel wanted so she can share her personal concerns and experiences. Because of her reputation for being a flirt, none of the farmhands wants to talk to her, but no matter how hard she tries, she can never fit in. Curleys, insecure feelings towards his wife, forces her into flirting with the other ranchers. Curleys wife also dressed rather slutty and fairly bare. One sign of loneliness is when You become overly critical of your physical appearance. (www.ub-counseling. buffalo.edu) Many people do not want to talk to her because of her reputation for being a flirt and bothering others. Maybe you better go along to you own house now. We dont want no trouble. (Steinbeck, 85)Curleys wife notices how simple-minded Lennie is and takes advantage of that situation. She knows that he would be the only one where she could discuss her problems that she deals with everyday. Loneliness is caused when you feel theres no one in your life with whom you can share your feelings and experiences. (Www.cound.uiuc.edu/loneline.htm) One problem that Curleys wife was unaware of, was Lennies curiosity and interest in soft objects. When Curleys wife was done explaining her problems to somebody that could care less about them, she asked him to stroke her hair. But when she began to yell at Lennie, he just pulled her hair tighter. This leads to the death of Curlys wife and now she will not have to worry about being lonely ever again. This could be thought of as a misfortune, but as a positive aspect as well because it ended her suffering. Curlys wifes case of loneliness was the most severe throughout the novel. She struggled in her society to find somebody that she could consult with. She tried and would do anything imaginable to dispatch her one psychological disorder, loneliness. Loneliness is an inevitable fact of life that not even the strongest can avoid. Throughout the story, Of Mice and Men, the reader discovers the many sources of solitude, primarily being discrimination and prejudice. Crooks, Candy and Curleys wife all suffer the previous injustices resulting in loneliness and isolation. They learn to cope with their loneliness through their interest in Lennie and Georges friendship. In some ways they are even envious of the bond. Often times, a victim of isolation will have a never-ending strive to fulfill a friendship.